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Jute is one of the strongest natural plant fibre. Jute is a long, soft, shiny plant fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It’s the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton in terms of usage, global consumption, production and availability.
Fabrics made of jute fibres are carbon-dioxide neutral and naturally decomposable. Its an extremely eco friendly textile.
It grows best in warm, humid climates. India, Bangladesh, and China are the main producers of jute.
Process of making fabric:
When the plants are about 15-20 cm tall, they are thinned out. About four months after planting, harvesting begins. The stalks are cut off close to the ground. The stalks are tied into bundles and retted (soaked) in water for about 20 days.
This process softens the tissues and permits the fibres to be separated. After retting, the bundles are beat on the root end with a mallet to start the fibers which are wrapped around the fingers and the stems are jerked back and forth in the water to separate the fibers. The fibres are then stripped from the stalks in long strands and washed in clear, running water. Then they are hung up or spread on thatched roofs to dry. After 2-3 days of drying, the fibres are tied into bundles.
Jute is graded (rated) according to its colour, strength, and fibre length. The fibres are off-white to brown, and 1-4 m long. Jute is pressed into bales for shipment to manufacture jute yarn which is then later woven into jute fabrics.
Jute processing is concentrated in Kolkata,India
Important Features of Jute:
u Jute is 100% bio-degradable & recyclable and thus environment friendly.
u Jute is a natural fibre with golden & silky shine, and hence nicknamed as The Golden Fibre.
u Jute is a vegetable fibre procured from bast of the Jute plant and it falls into the category of bast fibres (other bast fibres are Flax, Hemp, Ramie, etc.).
u Jute is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton.
u Jute has high tensile strength, and low extensibility.
u Jute is one of the most versatile natural fibres that has been used in raw materials for packaging, textiles, non-textile, and agricultural sectors.
u Jute stem has very high volume of cellulose that can procured within 4-6 months, and hence it also can save the forest and meet cellulose and wood requirement of the world.
u Raw Jute & Jute goods are interpreted as Burlap, Industrial Hemp, and Kenaf in some parts of the world.
u The best source of Jute in the world is the Bengal Delta Plain, which is occupied by Bangladesh and India.